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  • 04 Dec 2019 7:56 AM | Smart About Salt (Administrator)

    https://www.utoronto.ca/news/road-salt-taking-its-toll-insects-toronto-area-u-t-researchers-find

    It may help keep your car on the road in the winter, but research from the University of Toronto suggests that road salt is creating problems for wildlife.

    Researchers from the lab of Shannon McCauley, an associate professor of biology at U of T Mississauga, investigated the impact of road salt exposure on larvae of Anax junius dragonflies. The results, published in the journal Frontiers of Ecology and Evolution, show that long-term exposure to high levels of salinity suppress the immune response of aquatic insects, negatively impacting their ability to fight infections and recover from injuries.

    Known as “green darners,” Anax junius dragonflies are one of the most common and abundant species in North America. Long and thin, they can grow to a length of 76 mm and are fierce and voracious predators. 

    “They eat everything, including each other, other dragonflies, mosquitos and zooplankton,” says Rosalind Murray, a post-doctoral researcher in the McCauley Lab who co-authored the study with McCauley and undergraduate biology student Racquelle Mangahas. “In a fishless pond, Anax junius are top predators that shape the aquatic ecosystem.

    “We don’t know much about how macro invertebrates – larger insects – respond to salinity, and no one has ever looked at this particular species.” 

    Murray notes that 2017 was a boom year for the insects, which were collected at U of T’s Koffler Scientific Reserve north of Toronto for the study. “It was a good opportunity to ask questions about what is happening to these top predators,” she says.

    Salt enters aquatic environments in a number of ways. In colder climates, salt is spread liberally for traction on icy roads, parking lots and walking paths, where it can be washed into ponds, rivers and streams when the snow melts. In warmer locales, salt also enters the watershed through road gravel, agricultural applications and runoff from saltwater residential pools.

    Previous research measured how much road salt might be lethal to aquatic populations, but Murray notes that many creatures may experience non-lethal salinity levels over different periods of time.

    “Stagnant ponds might contain little pockets with higher salinity, and insects can move in and out of them so they may experience quick acute exposure,” she says. “They may not be experiencing salinity at a rate that is sustained enough to kill them. We wondered how salinity might be affecting animals in a non-lethal way.”

    The researchers theorized that salinity might have an effect on the insects’ immune systems. To observe the potential effects of road salt on larval immune response, the researchers turned to melanin, a chemical that plays a role in wound healing. “When an insect has a wound, it sends melanin to encapsulate the foreign object or wound,” Murray says.

    Dragonfly larvae were injected with a monofilament to mimic injury that might be caused by a parasite or other wound. The larvae were then placed into water with various levels of commercial road salt ranging from standard tap water with no salt added to solutions of one and three grams of salt per litre. The larvae were left in the solutions for periods ranging from one to 96 hours (four days), after which the researchers measured the amount of melanin deposited on the monofilaments.

    “We found that the highest level salt treatment in longest-term exposure resulted in a significantly decreased immune response,” Murray says.

    “Dragonflies are pretty robust, but at the longest period of the highest concentration, we saw that they are being affected by high concentrations of salt,” she says. “Our study exposed the insects for just four days, but animals may live for years in the same pond. A chronically salty environment, it could – and likely would – have a much stronger effect.”

    Chronic exposure to salination could have other long-term implications for the insects and also for other creatures on the food chain. Additional research from the McCauley Lab indicates that exposure to road salt appears to negatively impact the appetite of adult dragonflies. “Our research shows a decrease in the number of mosquitos that they are eating, which could impact how many mosquitos are in our environment.”

    “It’s a global problem that’s not specific to cold climates,” Murray says. “It is important to be aware of how much salt we are adding to the environment, and that it is having an effect.”

    The research was supported the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada.




  • 27 Nov 2019 4:25 PM | Smart About Salt (Administrator)

    https://www.msn.com/en-ca/news/canada/judge-finds-homeowners-cant-be-found-liable-for-accidents-on-poorly-cleared-sidewalks/ar-BBXoRdV?ocid=spartanntp

    When Darwin Der fell on a Burnaby, B.C. sidewalk in December 2017, he broke more than the carton of eggs he was carrying in his hand.

    A combination of snow, rain, shovelling, salt, unfreezing and refreezing had turned the angled pavement cut into the curb for wheelchair access into a literal slippery slope.

    But Der has faced a proverbial uphill battle trying to hold anyone responsible.

    The latest blow came this week when a B.C. Supreme Court judge ruled that a pair of homeowners couldn't be found liable for attempts at clearing away snow that may have inadvertently made the sidewalk slipperier.

    Justice Heather MacNaughton's ruling provides a window into the law around snow removal and the rights and responsibilities of citizens when it comes to clearing the sidewalks in front of their properties as the mercury dips.

    Long story short: even if you fail to comply with a municipal bylaw requiring you to shovel and salt, you can't be found liable if someone slips because you failed to do so.

    I immediately fell hard onto my back and neck

    Der and his wife were walking home from a grocery store with a dozen eggs on Dec. 21, 2017 when the 76-year-old slipped on the corner of the sidewalk outside of a home belonging to Ang Zhao and Quanqiu Huang.

    "As I stepped onto the sloped sidewalk just ahead of my wife, my feet slid out from underneath me and I immediately fell hard onto my back and neck," he wrote in an affidavit filed with the court.

    "There is a gap in my memory after the fall, but when I regained some level of awareness, I could feel pain in my shoulder, neck and back, and I could not move."

    The retiree has since required surgery to fuse his spine and suffers from some degree of paralysis.

    Bylaw breach does not equal civil liability

    Der initially sued Zhao, Huang and the City of Burnaby but later discontinued his action against the city.

    He was also forced to acknowledge precedent that says that a breach of the city's bylaw requiring "an owner or occupier of property abutting a municipal sidewalk to clear it of ice and snow by 10 a.m. every day" does not create civil liability against the property owner when it comes to users of the sidewalk.

    A 2000 ruling in Ontario's Court of Appeal noted that municipal governments across the country "enlist their own residents in the snow-clearing enterprise" and that accidents take place just as regularly.

    But those judges found that "the snow and ice accumulating on public sidewalks are the legal responsibility of the municipality" unless an owner assumes responsibility for the space or if poor conditions on their land flow onto the sidewalk, making the public property hazardous.

    That left Der trying to claim that Zhao and Huang had "created a hazardous slippery sidewalk that was not visible to a reasonable pedestrian" when they tried to clear the sidewalk prior to the accident.

    'Imperative' to follow clearing with de-icing

    Zhao and Huang moved into the home in front of the sidewalk on the day Der fell.

    Zhao said he had shoveled the sidewalk in previous days in order to comply with the city's bylaws. And Huang claimed she salted the sidewalk in the morning to make it safer for the movers.

    But according to a report filed by accident reconstruction expert Tim Leggett, the classic Lower Mainland cycle of freezing and thawing likely left the bare sidewalk vulnerable to the kind of melting that later leads to black ice.

    In fact, he said, that had the sidewalk not been shoveled, the snow might have provided some traction.

    "It is imperative when performing any winter road maintenance activities to perform it thoroughly," wrote Leggett, an expert in winter road maintenance, friction and slippery slopes.

    "In other words, if an effort is undertaken to remove the snow then it follows that an additional effort should be made to apply a de-icing chemical to remove any excess material left behind."

    Policy nightmare?

    The judge noted that Der wasn't claiming the couple's snow clearing attempts alone had created a "direct" hazard — rather that they should have foreseen that the weather might later turn their bare sidewalk into a skating rink.

    MacNaughton said Der had failed to meet the burden of proof for that argument and finding otherwise could have huge policy consequences.

    If "property owners who do not clear sidewalks abutting their properties have no legal responsibility for potential resulting danger on those sidewalks, but those who comply with municipal snow removal bylaws expose themselves to liability, the result would be that property owners would have an incentive not to make any efforts to comply with snow removal bylaws," the judge wrote.

    "The potential loss of the assistance of private property owners in snow removal efforts out of fear of the potential legal ramifications would be likely to cause more danger than it would prevent."



  • 26 Nov 2019 6:43 AM | Smart About Salt (Administrator)

    https://www.rivertowns.net/sports/outdoors/4779797-Angie-Hong-column-As-snow-approaches-ways-to-reduce-salt-use-and-help-the-environment

    When the City of Carthage fell at the end of the Third Punic War, 146 BC, victorious Romans pulled Phoenecian ships out of the harbor and set them on fire before moving through the city, house to house, rounding up and selling 50,000 people into slavery. Then they set the city on fire. As a final insult before they left, it is said that the Roman soldiers sprinkled salt upon the ground to ensure that nothing could ever grow there again.

    During the 17th and 18th centuries, Spain and Portugal punished traitors within their empires by executing them and then pouring salt on their land. Closer to home, some say that Union soldiers salted the fields in Georgia during Gen. William Sherman’s infamous March to the Sea (though it’s not likely they used very much, since salt was a hot commodity during the American Civil War).

    Throughout history, pouring salt on the land has symbolized a curse not only for current inhabitants, but also for future generations. Then, during the winter of 1941-42, New Hampshire became the first state in the U.S. to apply salt to roads to help melt snow and ice more quickly. The U.S. used a total of 5,000 pounds of road salt that year. After World War II, road salt became more common. One million tons of salt were used in 1955, and 10 million in 1972. By 2017, local, state and federal highway departments were applying 19.8 million tons of salt every year to roads across the nation.

    Whose future do we seek to curse?

    Though the Roman and Union soldiers’ salting of the earth may have been mostly symbolic, our modern communities face the very real risk of suffering unintended consequences from using road salt, year after year. There is currently no practical technology for removing salt from our surface and groundwater resources and soil once it is there, so the only solution is to use less salt and hope that it doesn’t build up too quickly.

    In Minnesota, 50 lakes and streams have already been contaminated by too much salt and another 120 are near the threshold for impairment. Recent research reported in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences suggests that chloride concentrations are increasing in roughly one-third of all lakes in the northern U.S and Canada. Even the groundwater we drink is at risk. Almost 30% of shallow wells in the Twin Cities metro area have been found to have chloride concentrations above the recommended level for drinking water.

    We all value our safety when driving in winter weather, but clean water and healthy soils are vital to our long-term survival as well. Here are five suggestions from local experts on how each of us can help:

    1. Drive slower and wear appropriate shoes when it’s snowy and icy outside. This helps to support road maintenance crews, as well as large parking lot owners, in their efforts to reduce salt use.

    2. Use less salt on your own driveway and sidewalk. One pound of salt (one heaping coffee mug) is enough to clear a 20-fo

      1. ot driveway or 10 sidewalk squares (250 square feet). Always shovel before using salt.

      2. Skip the salt when it is colder than 15 degrees. Salt works by lowering the melting temperature of ice so that it melts when the temperature is below freezing (32 degrees). However, traditional road salt (sodium chloride) doesn’t work when it’s colder than 15 degrees, so it is a waste of time and money to put down salt on very cold days. Magnesium chloride and calcium chloride work at colder temperatures (minus-10 degrees and minus-20 degrees, respectively) but can be more expensive.

      3. Sweep up and reuse leftover salt after the ice melts.

      4. Stop using your water softener if your water hardness is less than 120 milligrams per liter CaCO3. If you do need a water softener, switch from a timer-based to a demand-based system and install a bypass for your outside spigot so that you aren’t softening water for irrigation.

      Learn more about chloride and its impact on Minnesota water at www.pca.state.mn.us/water/chloride-salts.


  • 19 Nov 2019 3:29 PM | Smart About Salt (Administrator)

    https://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/kitchener-waterloo/salt-snow-ice-winter-1.5364063

    The great salt shortage of 2018-2019 is behind us, but the days of cheap rock salt are probably over.

    Municipalities are preparing for the worst, including the Region of Waterloo which has budgeted half a million dollars more just for salt in its next fiscal plan.

    "Wholesale salt? Picked up in Goderich, we used to pay $55 a tonne, $70 a tonne delivered pre-season delivered, $80 delivered once the season has come into play," said Jon Agg, who owns Pristine Property Management.

    Now, he says the cheapest he's been able to find salt is $111 a tonne — and as expensive as $165.

    Agg said the increase is simple economics; when last year's salt shortage pushed up prices and demand held steady it proved the market handle the increase.

    "It's what the market will bear."

    Goderich is home to the world's largest underground salt mine, on the shores of Lake Huron. A workers' strike in mid-2018 affected the salt supply that year — forcing some contractors to get creative and import salt from as far away as Egypt. 

    Others, like Reliable Care Premium Landscapes in Scarborough, saw the writing on the wall and decided it was time for a change.

    Brine: less salt, more environmentally-friendly

    "We've converted all our trucks to use liquid brine. We're no longer putting rock salt down," said general manager Leo Varlese.

    His company spent $250,000 to convert their salt trucks to spray the brine — a technique used by some municipalities and the Ministry of Transportation on the 400-series highways.

    The brine is salty water, mixed in a reservoir that "looks like a big hot tub," said Varlese. It uses a lot less salt and is better for the environment.

    "We used 50 per cent less salt right off the bat," said Varlese, "Our big push as a company is that we truly believe in making the outside a place you want to be. It's all about the environment; that was our big push to do this, a huge investment. We could have bought a lot of salt with a quarter of a million dollars."

    This will be just the second season for Reliable Care's brine experiment, but already Varlese says he's seeing a real difference.

    "We don't kill the grass now anymore [on our condo properties], we don't kill the bushes. Whereas a lot of our work in the springtime was repairing grass and repairing vegetation.

    "We don't have to do that anymore."


  • 19 Nov 2019 6:58 AM | Smart About Salt (Administrator)

    https://www.ourwindsor.ca/opinion-story/9707353-why-canadians-opt-for-the-same-grim-black-coat-every-winter/

    Have you bought The Winter Coat yet? Make haste. Do you really think that the global heating that last week dumped a sheet cake of wet snow onto cities where serious leaf raking has yet to begin means that you can postpone the most important yearly ritual of Canadian life?

    If you look at your serious winter coat and think “She’ll see me through another one,” you’re postponing the inevitable. You are relying on the mechanism behind the news photo of people lining up on Bloor Street for the unveiling of Eataly, basically a dressed-up food court at Bay and Bloor to whom I wish the best of luck.

    Male and female, they were wearing the drab uniform of a Canadian winter: black pants, black coats and a grim expression.

    In our black Canada Goose parkas and endless puffy jackets, we look like Maoists, a police lineup, street-wandering Raskolnikovs pondering our recent murder. We look like Soviet-era Russians lining up for bath plugs and rotting beetroot. On the subway we are androgynous and indistinguishable.

    These are statement coats, the statement being “I give up.” There are reasons: road salt stains, black being so washable, black still chic though in circumstances other than this (parties, not parkas), doesn’t show the dirt, and nothing in the stores except you-can’t-go-wrong-with black.

    I have a serious black Winter Coat, an oversized neck-to-ankles monolith in the kind of wool that the maker Piacenza says is combed with special thistles, very possibly in an Italian hilltop village where the church bells ring with every bolt sent to market. “These are fabrics where the architecture of their structure reigns supreme, of standing out for their extreme light weight and of answering the calls of modernity,” or so the Piacenza people say.

    It’s so thick and heavy that I could send it over empty to line up at Eataly for me.

    I bought it back when I was flush. It is battered now, as are we all, and has at best one more year. But that’s what every Canadian says in November, faced with shopping for a new coat, which is easily as bad as buying a bathing suit.


  • 19 Nov 2019 6:56 AM | Smart About Salt (Administrator)

    https://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/kitchener-waterloo/region-of-waterloo-to-pay-500k-more-for-winter-road-salt-in-next-budget-1.5361527

    Draft budget sees an increase of $1.3 million in a total winter road maintenance spending

    The Region of Waterloo is expecting to pay $500,000 more for road salt next year.

    The region's draft budget shows an increase in spending for road salt, part of a $1.3 million overall increase to the winter road maintenance budget.

    The proposed increase includes several winter maintenance items such as the cost of maintaining the separated cycling lane pilot network, the removal and disposal of built up snow that exceeds on-road storage and the cost of salt.

    "We have seen an increase in the prices of salt [which is] somewhat substantial," said Emil Marion, the Manager of Transportation Operation for the Region of Waterloo. "The amounts have gone up based on the increased infrastructure [and] change in weather patterns requiring more salt unfortunately. "

    The Region of Waterloo will be holding a number of public and online budget input sessions prior to the draft budget's approval. The first is set for Nov. 26. 


  • 18 Nov 2019 6:57 AM | Smart About Salt (Administrator)

    https://www.hometownsource.com/forest_lake_times/salting-the-earth/article_4e932bb6-073f-11ea-86d2-f379d8ee22e3.html

    When the City of Carthage fell at the end of the Third Punic War, 146 BC, victorious Romans pulled Phoenician ships out of the harbor and set them on fire before moving through the city, house to house, rounding up and selling 50,000 people into slavery. Then they set the city on fire. As a final insult before they left, it is said that the Roman soldiers sprinkled salt upon the ground to ensure that nothing could ever grow there again.

    During the 17th and 18th centuries, Spain and Portugal punished traitors within their empires by executing them and then pouring salt on their land. Closer to home, some say that Union soldiers salted the fields in Georgia during General Sherman’s infamous March to the Sea (though it’s not likely they used very much, since salt was a hot commodity during the American Civil War).

    Throughout history, pouring salt on the land has symbolized a curse not only for current inhabitants, but also for future generations. Then, during the winter of 1941-42, New Hampshire became the first state in the U.S. to apply salt to roads to help melt snow and ice more quickly. The U.S. used a total of 5,000 pounds of road salt that year. After World War II, road salt became more common. One million tons of salt were used in 1955, and 10 million in 1972. By 2017, local, state and federal highway departments were applying 19.8 million tons of salt every year to roads across the nation. 

    Whose future do we seek to curse?

    Though the Roman and Union soldiers’ salting of the earth may have been mostly symbolic, our modern communities face the very real risk of suffering unintended consequences from using road salt, year after year. There is currently no practical technology for removing salt from our surface and groundwater resources and soil once it is there, so the only solution is to use less salt and hope that it doesn’t build up too quickly.

    In Minnesota, 50 lakes and streams have already been contaminated by too much salt and another 120 are near the threshold for impairment. Recent research reported in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences suggests that chloride concentrations are increasing in roughly one-third of all lakes in the northern U.S. and Canada. Even the groundwater we drink is at risk. Almost 30% of shallow wells in the Twin Cities metro area have been found to have chloride concentrations above the recommended level for drinking water.

    We all value our safety when driving in winter weather, but clean water and healthy soils are vital to our long-term survival as well. Here are five suggestions from local experts on how each of us can help:

    1. Drive slower and wear appropriate shoes when it’s snowy and icy outside. This helps to support road maintenance crews, as well as large parking lot owners, in their efforts to reduce salt use.

    2. Use less salt on your own driveway and sidewalk. One pound of salt (one heaping coffee mug) is enough to clear a 20-foot driveway or 10 sidewalk squares (250 sq. ft.). Always shovel before using salt.

    3. Skip the salt when it is colder than 15 degrees. Salt works by lowering the melting temperature of ice so that it melts when the temperature is below freezing (32 degrees Fahrenheit). However, traditional road salt (sodium chloride) doesn’t work when it’s colder than 15 degrees Fahrenheit, so it is a waste of time and money to put down salt on very cold days. Magnesium chloride and calcium chloride work at colder temperatures (-10 and -20 degrees, respectively) but can be more expensive.

    4. Sweep up and reuse left-over salt after the ice melts.

    5. Stop using your water softener if your water hardness is less than 120 mg/L CaCO3. If you do need a water softener, switch from a timer-based to a demand-based system and install a bypass for your outside spigot so that you aren’t softening water for irrigation.

    Learn more about the impacts of chlorides on local lakes and streams at a free presentation: “A salty tale for Minnesota lakes and streams,” Monday, Dec. 2, from 6:30 to 7:30 p.m. at the Hardwood Creek Library. 

    Information about chlorides is also available at www.pca.state.mn.us/water/chloride-salts

    Angie Hong is an educator for East Metro Water. Contact her at 651-330-8220 x.35 or angie.hong@mnwcd.org.


  • 17 Nov 2019 2:33 PM | Smart About Salt (Administrator)

    https://blog.wwf.ca/blog/2019/11/16/fieldnotes-otter-less-salty-winter/

    How can we be less salty during the winter? 

    We need to find a balance between public safety and environmental safety. Road salt is only effective between 0 and –10 degrees, so if it’s too cold, it does nothing but contaminate the environment. Salt is only for ice, not snow removal, and can be used sparingly — about 2.5 tablespoons can clear a square metre! 

    Shoveling your property and keeping drains clear can help prevent icy conditions, and clearing areas you use daily, like a walkway or driveway, is better than clearing your entire property. This automatically reduces the amount of road salt you’re using during the winter. 


  • 12 Nov 2019 7:18 AM | Smart About Salt (Administrator)

    https://www.newmarkettoday.ca/local-news/technology-aids-region-in-tracking-clearing-snow-1842085

    Leave plenty of space when passing a snow plow — portions of the plow and blade may be obscured by blowing snow

    about 14 hours ago By: NewmarketToday Staff

    Snow plow blade

    File photo/Village Media

    NEWS RELEASE
    REGIONAL MUNICIPALITY OF YORK
    *************************
    Environment Canada is forecasting up to 10 to 15 centimetres of snow into this evening.

    The Regional Municipality of York reminds residents to slow down and give yourself extra time and space going to your destinations when driving in winter weather.

    York Region is responsible for the maintenance of approximately 1,200 kilometres (or more than 4,200 lane-kilometres) of roadways across all nine cities and towns. During the winter months, this includes snow plowing, snow removal, sanding, salting and the use of salt-brine to help prevent ice buildup on roads.

    Road conditions are monitored 24-hours-a-day to ensure roads are safe and passable in winter conditions. York Region uses a road weather information system to track rain, snow and ice and GPS tracking to maximize the effectiveness of the winter maintenance fleet before, during and after winter storms. In addition, patrol vehicles are equipped with sensors to gauge the temperature of the road surface to better identify when roads may need to be treated.

    All snow plow vehicles are equipped with electronic spreader controls to help ensure the right amount of anti-ice materials are released at the right time and in the right place, minimizing impacts of salt to the environment.

    During winter road conditions, motorists should:

    • If you are driving, drive according to conditions and give yourself extra time to get to your destination
    • Have winter tires on your vehicle
    • Clear snow, ice and frost from all windows, headlights, taillights and roof
    • Make sure your windshield fluid and vehicle fuel is topped up
    • Carry a roadside emergency kit
    • Let us do the driving by taking YRT
    • Follow York Region on Twitter for road updates
    • Slow down and respect pedestrian’s crossing the road 
    If you travelling, please give snowplows plenty of room by:
    • Driving a safe distance behind the snowplow; you may see them but they may not see you if you are following too closely
    • Only passing snow removal vehicles when a safe passing area is available and the lane is clear of snow or treated with salt or sand; do not pass on the right
    • When passing a plow, be sure to leave plenty of space; plows are wider than most vehicles and portions of the plow and blade may be obscured by blowing snow
    • Not travelling beside a plow; they can shift sideways after moving snowdrifts.


  • 11 Nov 2019 7:55 AM | Smart About Salt (Administrator)

    https://www.prnewswire.com/news-releases/pirelli-goes-below44-degrees-with-launch-of-winter-driving-awareness-campaign-300954934.html

    NEW YORK, Nov. 8, 2019 /PRNewswire/ -- Colder temperatures, freezing rain, ice, snow, road salt and potholes are just some of the challenges that can impact drivers getting from point A to point B safely this winter. Today, iconic tiremaker Pirelli kicks off a 44-day campaign, #Below44, designed to educate consumers on why winter tires are critical for anyone who lives in an environment where the temperature regularly drops below 44oF.

    While many drivers believe the need for winter tires is based on precipitation and the ability to maneuver in the snow, in reality, temperature is the first and most important deciding factor. This is because the rubber in tires is formulated with specific compounds to perform well in different conditions — and cold is an important issue. Winter tires use different rubber formulations that stay soft below 44oF degrees to improve their ability to maintain grip on a cold road surface – wet or dry.

    The campaign, which includes daily tips and myth busters, an expert Q&A and a consumer rebate offer, will address the many misconceptions that consumers have about winter tires versus all-season tires and the importance of a tire made with a winter compound regardless of whether or not the driver is operating an all-wheel drive vehicle.  

    "There are two reasons why we recommend consumers who live in colder climates switch over to true winter tires," said Ian Coke, Head of R&D, Pirelli North America. "The first is because tires are made of rubber compounds that respond to extreme temperatures and become stiffer as temperatures decrease. This stiffness can significantly reduce the traction levels of the tire tread – the part of the tire that makes direct contact with the road surface – and compromise the tire's overall performance and a driver's safety. As the temperature continues to drop the performance level of the tire will also continue to be impacted."

    Winter storms, bad weather and sloppy road conditions are a factor in nearly half a million crashes and more than 2,000 road deaths every winter.1 Yet in areas where winter tires are mandatory, like Canada, there has been a significant reduction in wintertime serious accident rates, with accidents in Montreal dropping by 46 percent, for example. Moreover, 80 percent of winter tire owners believe that a vehicle equipped with winter tires has saved them from being involved in a potentially hazardous driving situation.2

    The Pirelli Pro Guide: Winter launches today and offers resources for consumers looking to learn more about winter tires: How do I know if I need them? Are they safer? What should I look for in a winter tire? The guide will also address common misperceptions such as the fact that driving an all-wheel and four-wheel drive vehicle has nothing to do with the grip your tires have on the road.

    Another misperception is that winter tires and snow tires are one and the same. Originally, tire manufacturers offered a snow tire that had a more aggressive tread pattern designed to cut into snow. Many people still use the term snow tire – but today, tire companies no longer offer such a product. As chemistry and production have become more sophisticated, so have tires. The snow tire has replaced by the winter tire. The difference is a tread designed to grip both snow and ice and remain supple in cold conditions.

    Pirelli performs Research & Development both independently and with most of the major auto manufacturers around the world. In fact, the tiremaker offers more than 2,300 tires that are "marked," in other words developed in partnership with the manufacturer for optimum performance for a specific vehicle. That same technology, and key learnings during the process, transfer over to replacement tires as well, including summer, winter and all-season tires.

    To learn more, visit our website and follow along for daily #Below44 updates @pirelliusa.

    Pirelli Communications and Media Relations – North America:
    Maria Stella Narciso • 1 762 235 9179 • mariastella.narciso@pirelli.com
    www.pirelli.com

    1 AAA Foundation for Traffic Safety
    2 Tire & Rubber Association of Canada, 2018 Canadian Consumer Winter Tire Study


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