The opinions expressed in our new items and other published works are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the opinions of Smart About Salt Council (referred to as SASC) or its Directors, Officers, Volunteer, agents or staff.

All rights reserved. No part of any SASC published work may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without written permission from the publisher.

Information contained in our published works have been obtained by SASC from sources believed to be reliable. However, neither SASC nor its authors guarantees the accuracy or completeness of any information published herein and neither SASC nor its authors shall be responsible for any errors, omissions, or claims for damages, including exemplary damages, arising out of use, inability to use, or with regard to the accuracy or sufficiency of the information contained in SASC publications.

  • 08 Jan 2018 6:19 AM | Smart About Salt (Administrator)

    With the potential for an icy weekend after this week's storm, crews will be out and about salting the roads, sidewalks, parking lots and homes.

    And while the salt helps melt ice and gets Islanders moving again, it does have some negative effects.

    Here are some prevention tips to keep your car from rusting, your pets healthy and your footwear from being ruined.


    Matt Thomson, general manager at Midtown Auto Repair and Tire in Charlottetown, says salt causes corrosion and rust on the underside of vehicles.

    "Mainly we see the impact on the floor, the subframe, the heads of bolts, those kinds of areas," he says. "Essentially what it does is it slowly eats the body and the frame of your vehicle."

    Salt doesn't affect tires but it can damage aluminum rims.

    An annual rust proofing is the most common and effective type of prevention for salt, but it will only slow rusting, not completely eliminate it. Thomson recommends applying rust proofing every year, generally in the fall before the snow comes. Cars that are 10 years old or more are more likely to have rust damage, but he said you shouldn't wait that long to get your vehicle rust proofed.

    "It's instantaneous," Thomson says. "If you have a brand new vehicle, you should undercoat it before its first winter because it will start to do damage its first winter."

    Repairs or replacements are possible depending on the type of rust damage and where it is, but sometimes that will be not as safe or too costly compared to getting a new vehicle. He also suggests that used car buyers get a car inspected underneath before buying a vehicle that's eight or more years old.


    Marla Somersall, executive director of the P.E.I. Humane Society, says they strongly encourage people to use sand instead of salt around their home if they have cats or dogs. Salt gets into their paws and dries them out, she said.

    "It can actually cause cracks and bleeding, and it can get up in between the pads on their feet. Between the cold and the salt, it can cause a lot of damage for pets' feet."

    "The other piece is that dogs will lick because it's bothering them and so they're actually ingesting the salt and the chemicals that are in that and can cause themselves digestive problems and illness as well." 

     At the very least, Somersall says you should wash their paws when they get back inside. 

    The best thing to do if you have pets on sidewalks or areas with salt is to have them wear booties or, if your pet doesn't like booties, apply a protective balm of your choice to their paws. Once you're back inside, you will want to wash off their paws. And as always, you want to be conscious of the temperature outside and how it's affecting your pets.


    Richard Meenink, owner-operator of Dr. Shoe in Charlottetown, says shoes and boots worn outside in the winter will eventually be ruined by salt if they're not cared for properly.

    "Left alone, it can really destroy them," he says. "Footwear for the most part is either leather or vinyl, particularly boots, it basically will eat through the surface and either turn the leather crusty and harden it and swell it up, and the vinyl it damages the surface for the most part.

    "It looks horrible but in the long run, it leaves it unusable."

    There are different protector polishes people can apply to their footwear — the thicker the better, Meenink says. Many new shoes come with some protection but it doesn't hurt to apply more, particularly for leather shoes. Depending on use, you may need to apply additional protection or polish at the beginning of winter or as frequently as once a month.

    The way to tell if you need to re-apply is to take a few drops of water and flick them on your boot, under the arch where it's not noticeable. If the water beads off, they're still protected, but if the water sinks in, you should re-apply. There are spray and past protectors available at shoe repair shops and online.

    And, like pets, it's best to have something by the door to address the salt right away.

    "I do tell my customers this time of year to keep a towel by the door where they come in for the day and if their boots are wet, the best thing you can do is dab them dry," he says. "Because even if you've protected a boot or shoe, left overnight with wet and salt, given time that will eat through just about everything."

    Meenink says it's not hard to get white stains out from the salt, but if it eats through the surface so that it swells up and creates a ridge, that won't come out.

    The best way to maintain your shoes and boots is to keep them dry and clean, and to apply some additional protection to them regularly.

  • 28 Dec 2017 4:08 PM | Smart About Salt (Administrator)

    Spraying major roads with a salt mixture ahead of winter storms may improve commutes and reduce collisions, but it could be bad news for the North Saskatchewan River.

    Hans Asfeldt, manager of water literacy with North Saskatchewan Riverkeeper, said the group will be keeping close tabs on the city’s calcium chloride pilot project.

    “Anything that goes on the road ultimately does end up in the river, ” he said. “There is a concern around the use of salts or liquid brine in general, and it’s a concern that’s been well documented across Canada.” 

    The city began the pilot project this winter. The aim is to improve how it manages snow and ice on city streets, especially on difficult to plow corridors such as Yellowhead Trail. Around 40 per cent of the city’s roads — around 3,000 kilometres — could be sprayed with a calcium chloride solution 24 to 36 hours before a snowfall. 

    The mixture is less corrosive than traditional road salt and includes a corrosion inhibitor to try to minimize any damage to cars and infrastructure, officials said.

    Asfeldt said some salt has traditionally been used for roadway management in Edmonton.

    But the mixture can be toxic for aquatic life.

    “We want to see clearer numbers around those plans, and we’d like to see them also (compared) against what’s been done in the past,” he said. “Although we have used some liquid salt brine in the past, it’s not nearly on this scale.

    “In order to understand the environmental impact, we A.) need to know what’s been done in the past, how much salt has gone on the roads, and how much of it foreseeably ends up in the river, and B.) how much are we planning to use in the future?”

    A spokesperson for the city said Friday that river monitoring is being done, but could not provide more information because staff were away on holiday.  

    The test zones include several arterial and collector routes and around 170 bus stops, plus downtown bike lanes, officials said earlier. Also included are several park areas so officials can determine the impact on water runoff into the North Saskatchewan River, as well as on vegetation.

    Asfeldt noted that councillors wanted to know more about the spray’s environmental impact when the report on the plan was first presented. 

    He said city administration has done a cost-benefit analysis on the economics but “almost nothing” in terms of the environmental impacts.

    “Really we want to see the city do their due diligence, crunch the numbers and assess the (environmental) impacts extensively, in a way that matches the rigour that was applied to the economic cost benefit analysis,” Asfeldt said.

  • 20 Dec 2017 3:55 AM | Smart About Salt (Administrator)

    The City of Calgary is testing a new product made from beet brine to help clear streets of snow and ice this winter, saying it’s proven to be effective across Canada and in the United States.

    “It uses sugar beet molasses mixed with a salt brine to create a product that — when it’s put down — actually sticks to the road,” Calgary roads maintenance manager Jim Fraser said. “It makes it an effective agent for snow and ice control in terms of breaking that bond that the snow has with the road.”

    Fraser said the beet brine will be used all over, but mostly in areas of the downtown core including cycle tracks and pedestrian bridges.

    “It works in a temperature range up to -26 C, theoretically,” he said. “I think it would be very effective up to about -20 C.”

    Why bother with beet brine? Fraser said it’s proven to be less corrosive than regular road salt and communities that have tried it have indicated they needed to use less of it than regular salt mixtures, which in turn saves money.

    “Salt and brine have a tendency to wash away. We’ve seen this product – with its stickiness – stay effective on the roads,” he said. “If the product sticks to the road it will continue to react to any precipitation – snow, ice – that we get.”

    The beet brine’s tendency to stick to roads better means if it’s applied in anticipation of snow which then doesn’t fall until later than expected, it will still be there by the time precipitation does come.

    Fraser said as part of their trial, the city has up to 90,000 litres of the product to use. It will be distributed by the city’s existing fleet of snow and ice control vehicles.

    Under Calgary’s Snow and Ice Control program (SNIC), crews sand, salt and plow city streets that receive the heaviest traffic, moving on to lower-priority roads once those are clear.

    The City of Calgary’s annual snow- and ice-control budget is $38 million.

    Snowfall warning issued for City of Calgary

    The City of Calgary is under a snowfall warning, issued by Environment Canada.

    The agency says 15 to 25 centimetres of snow is expected as a Pacific low-pressure system brings heavy snow to parts of southern Alberta.

    Snowfall warnings are issued when snowfall accumulations of greater than 10 centimetres are forecast to fall in 12 hours or less.

    Environment Canada cautions travellers will need to be ready to adjust their plans due to changing road conditions, saying rapidly accumulating snow may make travel difficult. They add the snow may cause visibility to be suddenly reduced at times.

  • 13 Dec 2017 9:49 AM | Smart About Salt (Administrator)

    Winter doesn’t officially arrive for nine days, but the first significant snowfall of the season has arrived in the GTA — and it is having a big impact on the Tuesday morning commute.

    Traffic was already an issue early on, with parts of the Highway 401 closed due to jack-knifed tractor-trailers. OPP Sgt. Kerry Schmidt said there have been more than 10 jack-knifed tractor-trailers overnight.

    Much of southern Ontario was under a special weather statement, including Toronto and the GTA. Some areas near Lake Huron also under a snow squall watch.

    The special weather statement ended just before 11 a.m. on Tuesday.

    Toronto received around six centimetres of snow overnight, while some areas outside of the city received close to 10 centimetres of snow. Environment Canada says another five centimetres of snow is expected to fall on Tuesday before tapering off to flurries.

    680NEWS meteorologist Jill Taylor says while the snow will wind down later on Tuesday, the winds will pick up to 40 km/h and it will get colder. By the afternoon, it will feel like -14 C with the wind. The windy conditions will continue overnight as the windchill drops to -19.

    Meanwhile, Toronto’s Medical Officer of Health has issued an Extreme Cold Weather Alert that will be in effect until further notice. Extreme Cold Weather Alerts are issued when the temperature is forecast to reach -15 degrees Celsius or colder, or when the wind chill is forecast to reach -20 or colder.

    Environment Canada warns poor winter driving conditions are likely, which will impact the Tuesday commute. Salt trucks and snow plows have been out on the roads all night across the GTA, getting streets ready for the morning.

    If you are flying out of Pearson International Airport, check your flight status before heading to the airport. As of 5:30 a.m., at least 150 flights in and out of the airport have been cancelled.

    This story was originally published on

  • 13 Dec 2017 9:42 AM | Smart About Salt (Administrator)

    Londoners could be seen trekking through blowing snow on Tuesday evening, as Canada's weather agency issued a snow squall warning. 

    Environment Canada issued the warning that will likely produce squalls off Lake Huron producing snowfall amounts of 30 cm or more. The lake effect snow squalls are likely to persist into Wednesday.

    "We're going to be watching the wind. We're expecting it to pickup from the Northwest, gusting up to 70 km/hr," Environment Canada's metrologist Geoff Coulson said. 

    The weather agency has advised people to consider postponing travel plans until road conditions improve, as travel is expected to be hazardous due to reduced visibility.  

    London's forecast is seeing snow every week day — so here's what you need to know so far.

    London International Airport is reporting flight cancellations for the first time this winter season.

    Up to a dozen departing and arriving flights to-and-from Toronto have been cancelled Tuesday afternoon and evening.

    Gerry Vanderhoek, manager of commercial services and passenger experience, says Londoners should check schedules before heading to the airport. 

    "The biggest thing when you're in these conditions is the ice on the wings. They get in to a really long de-icing delay which could be several hours," he said.

    Vanderhoek said flight cancellations should only last as long as the weather. 

    "This should only be short-lived," he said. "Our runway conditions are wide open and our people are keeping everything smoothly."

    City crews will continue to salt streets on Wednesday. They're warning drivers not to park on the street until further notice. 

    City crews went out on Tuesday with more than 31 plows and 27 salt trucks on the roads clearing main streets and bus routes.

    "If the snow persists and it's a prolonged snow event we do need to go back on those main streets again and re-plow them," said London's manager of roadside operations Don Purchase. 

    The prospect of reduced visibility and slippery roads forced some school bus lines to cancel services. School buses in London continued to run. Cancellations in the counties on Tuesday included: 

    • Oxford
    • Elgin,
    • Middlesex

    There were some reports of collisions Tuesday morning, including a jack-knifed trailer on the 401, near Tilbury that closed westbound lanes for several hours. A propane tanker also blocked lanes on the 402 at Colonel Talbot Road.  

    "Even if you have snow tires doesn't mean you're going to be staying out of the ditch. You still have to drive cautiously," said OPP constable Sean Kivvel. 

  • 08 Dec 2017 8:44 AM | Smart About Salt (Administrator)

    Marshes, streams and lakes lie alongside many of the roads and highways that zigzag across North America. Plants and animals inhabit these water bodies and can be exposed to many of the substances we put on those roads, including road salt.

    Rock salt helps keep roads safe when winter storms hit, reducing winter road accidents. But it can also have serious, negative effects on aquatic ecosystems.

    At high concentrations, salt can be fatal to some aquatic animals. Salt can also change the way the water mixes and lead to the formation of salty pockets near the bottom of lakes, creating biological dead zones.

    When the weather takes a wintry turn, many cities and municipalities in North America rely on salt to deice their roads. This rock salt is similar to table salt, made up of sodium and chloride, but coarser. It dissolves quickly on the road, leaving the chloride to enter nearby waters through runoff and leaching. In fact, almost all chloride ions from the road salt eventually find their way into waterways downstream.

    At low concentrations, chloride is relatively benign but as concentrations rise, it can be toxic to aquatic wildlife, including the plankton and fish that inhabit inland lakes. These ecological changes affect water quality.

    In salt water

    One study of North American lakes found that as little as one per cent of the land area within 500 metres of the lake had to be paved (or otherwise impervious) for there to be an increased risk of becoming saltier over the longterm.

    Basically, a little development can lead to a lot of salt entering a water body. About 27 per cent of large lakes in the United States are at least one per cent developed along their shores.

    recent study suggests that salt concentrations in many U.S. lakes will fall outside the bounds necessary for healthy aquatic plants, animals and microorganisms — and for good-tasting drinking water — by 2050.

    Canada will likely face the same issues. Depending on the severity of the winter, approximately five million tonnes of road salt are applied annually to Canadian roads. Many municipalities in southern Ontario use more than 100,000 tonnes per year.

    Road salt applications in Canada began in the 1950s. To fully understand how these increasing chloride concentrations have affected lake ecosystems, we must look back in time. But there’s little long-term data about these lakes for us to look at.

    Instead, we examine past environmental conditions by coring into the lake bottoms and using the information preserved in the lake sediments.

    A window into the past

    Clay, silt, sand, pollen, chemicals and other substances from the surrounding environment accumulate slowly — and continuously — in layers at the bottom of lakes. That sediment provides a natural archive of past conditions. For example, a layer with a lot of charcoal may indicate increased forest fires in the region.

    Scientists use the information preserved in this archive to understand how environmental conditions have changed over long periods of time — from years to centuries.

    The Muskoka region of central Ontario — known for its lakes, rivers and cottages — has been applying road salt since the 1950s. The remains of algae and microscopic animals (called zooplankton) contained within the region’s lake sediments show us that changes have occurred in these lakes, coinciding with the onset of road salt applications in the region.

    There are more salt-tolerant zooplankton species now than there were before road salt was widely used. The effect of that shift isn’t fully understood. But we do know that when things change at the lower levels of the food web, the effects may be felt through the whole ecosystem.

    Consider, for example, a fish that has become adapted to eating one type of zooplankton. If all of a sudden it is replaced by another type — perhaps one that is larger — it may run into trouble.

    Chloride can be toxic to zooplankton. At lower concentrations it can have sub-lethal effects — weakening individuals and raising rates of egg mortality. Fish are generally more tolerant to increasing salt concentrations, but the longer they are exposed to high chloride levels, the more toxic it is. Many young fish feed on plankton and if they lose their food source, they will not thrive.

    Brine alternatives

    Some communities in North America are looking for environmentally safe alternatives to road salt.

    Beet wastewater — left over from sugar beet processing — cheese brine, pickle juice and potato juice are some of the unconventional deicers being tested.

    The carbohydrates or sugars in beet wastewater make it more effective at lower temperatures than salt water or brine alone, lowering the melting point of the ice to below -20℃ from -10℃ — and reducing the amount of chloride applied to the road.

    But there are downsides. Some communities dislike the smell of the beet wastewater, which people have likened to soy sauce, molasses or stale coffee. It also adds sugar to aquatic ecosystems, which may encourage bacterial growth.

    Instead of using salt and salt additives, some engineers are experimenting with roads that clear themselves of snow and ice. Early tests have suggested that solar panels could replace asphalt to melt ice and eliminate the need for road salt, by heating water in pipes embedded in the road.

    Others are looking for more effective ways to use rock salt — and reduce the amount that enters water ecosystems. A significant portion of rock salt bounces off the road when it’s applied so trucks tend to apply more than necessary. Wetting the pavement and applying brine solutions help the salt adhere to the road, meaning cities and municipalities can cut back on how much they use.

    Scientists are also helping to figure out how much salt our lakes can handle, which species are at risk and which lakes are most sensitive to road salt exposure to find a way to keep humans safe on the road and plants and animals safe in our lakes, streams and wetlands.

  • 28 Nov 2017 2:06 PM | Smart About Salt (Administrator)

    Through 2016 and beyond and with support from the Province of Ontario, the Smart About Salt Council (SASC) was pleased to be able to review and update its award-winning in-class “Essentials of Salt Management” professional training for winter maintenance contractors and facility owners and operators. In so doing the SASC met a long-understood need to expand its training platform to embrace online delivery.

    Using preferred procurement (request for proposals (RFP), the SASC secured the assistance of qualified vendor to build a stand-alone training Website.

    Those wishing to enroll in SASC online training efforts can register at for any or all of thirteen (13) teaching modules available in either English or French. To complete an online course a fourteenth review and exam module needs to be successfully completed. In-class training (including time for an exam) usually take eight (8) hours but following a successful beta testing period that involved the Lake Simcoe Regional Conservation Authority (LSRCA) students appear to be averaging six and a half (6.5) hours to complete the online course.

    Upon completion registrants receive an email from the training system but should also expect a certificate emailed from Smart About Salt Council.

    Since leading practices in winter maintenance change and SASC is constantly striving to update its efforts “Certified Trained” status is recognized by SASC for three (3) years but can be extended for an additional two (2) years upon successful completion of an online refresher course.

    On behalf of our Members, supporters, stakeholders and collaborators, the Smart About Salt Council would like to thank the Province of Ontario, especially the Minster of the Environment and Climate Change (MoECC) for their collaboration and support in helping Smart About Salt Council to continue to protect freshwater resources in Ontario and beyond by helping industry, government and others adopt leading practice in winter maintenance and reduce their use of chlorides (salts) while maintaining safety.

    To learn more visit or email

  • 23 Nov 2017 6:35 AM | Smart About Salt (Administrator)

    Last year, 500,000 litres of beet juice was sprayed on the Coquihalla Highway.

    The unlikely tool has been used by VSA Highway Maintenance on the notorious mountain pass in an attempt to keep ice at bay.

    Salt brine liquid is used as a preventive measure to keep roads from icing, but it's only effective down to -5 C. When mixed with beet molasses, it lowers the brine's effective temperature down to about -15 C.

    Chuck Gallacher, vice-president of Premium Canada, the Lake Country-based distributor of the beet product, says the Coquihalla has been used as a pilot project for the technology, and it has been adopted by several municipalities this winter.

    The molasses is a byproduct of the process of removing sugar from beets. Premium Canada imports the product from Nampa, Idaho. 

    In addition to lowering the effective temperature of the brine, the sticky molasses helps keep sand and salt on the road. Without the beet additive, Gallacher says 70 per cent of solid products applied to roads ends up bouncing into the ditch.

    Liquid products like magnesium chloride and calcium chloride can be used at temperatures, down to -30 C, but are more expensive than salt brine, and can have environmental consequences if overused.

    “Salt brine is so much cheaper than those other liquids, and so the beet juice piece comes in by being able to supplement your salt brine and basically duplicate the performance of a higher-priced chloride product,” Gallacher said.

    Williams Lake and Merritt have also used beets on their roads, in addition to cities in Ontario and Quebec.

    “It's just being introduced really by us to cities this winter,” Gallacher he said.

    - |

  • 21 Nov 2017 6:54 PM | Smart About Salt (Administrator)

    MUSKOKA — Anyone applying road salt in Muskoka may soon have to get schooled.

    Dr. Norman Yan, an aquatic ecotoxicologist, and Tim Kearney, a retired contractor, on behalf of the Friends of the Muskoka Watershed have pitched winter salt management program Smart About Salt to receptive engineering and public works committee members at the District of Muskoka.

    The program, created by a not-for-profit council formed by the Region of Waterloo, Landscape Ontario Horticultural Trades Association, the Building Owners and Managers Association of Ottawa and the Ontario Good Roads Association, aims to protect fresh water from winter salt and, among other initiatives, offers a one-day salt awareness and education program to certify those in the snow and ice control business, including contractors, supervisors, property owners, facility managers and more.

    “We all know that millions of tonnes of salt are added to roads, parking lots and other surfaces in Canada,” said Yan. “This happens in Muskoka.”

    He noted salt does not stay in one place — it gets washed into lakes, rivers and other water bodies by rain and melt — and chloride levels in lakes near winter maintained roads and facilities had increased in Muskoka, with levels above 10 milligrams per litre now fairly common.

    And a few sat around 100 mg/L, he said.

    He noted the Canadian water quality guideline for chloride listed 120mg/L as its threshold, which Muskoka lakes sit below.

    But he said that guideline was based on studies done in hard water, rather than Muskoka’s soft water. A 2017 study by Queen’s University toxicologists lowered the maximum safe chloride concentration to 20 mg/L in Muskoka based on the plant and animal life specific to the region, he said.

    “Suddenly, we have a bunch of lakes that are above that 20 mg/L chloride level,” said Yan, before pointing to the district’s strategic priority statements on the natural environment. “We need to really put into practice these words of adopting a culture of environmental protection.”

    The Smart About Salt program, he said, has reduced Aurora’s salt use by 20 per cent and Kitchener-Waterloo’s by 25 per cent without increased cost or liability, as examples.

    Kearney threw his support behind the program.

    The retired contractor said companies often use significant amounts of salt, not only to quickly strip snowy roads to bare pavement, but also to bill clients more.

    Education and penalties were needed, he said.

    “We are putting down way more salt than we need to,” said Kearney. “I completely understand there are other materials out there that could be used and I suggest it’s a culture change that starts right here with our leadership.”

    But he added everyone, including homeowners, had a role to play.

    “They have to understand what salt does,” he said. “This area of the province is the green lung of Ontario. If the lakes get destroyed by chloride, what do we have left?”

    Committee members would debate the program’s adoption in future.

    by Alison Brownlee

    Alison Brownlee is a reporter with the Huntsville Forester. She can be reached at . Follow her on Twitter and Facebook

    Email: Facebook Twitter

  • 21 Nov 2017 6:39 AM | Smart About Salt (Administrator)

    TORONTO — One of Canada's high profile weather forecasters is warning Canadians across the country to brace for a whole lot of snow this winter.

    Chris Scott, The Weather Network's chief meteorologist, says the message from his forecast team is "buckle up, because it looks like a stormy winter."

    Scott says this year's La Nina weather system bears a striking resemblance to that of 2007-2008, when Toronto had its snowiest winter on record.

    "History tells us that when we have cooler waters off the coast of South America, that's La Nina, and those winters tend to be classic Canadian winters."

    British Columbia, the Prairies, Ontario, Quebec and Atlantic Canada are all in store for above normal levels of precipitation, according to the forecast.

    In western Canada, that precipitation will likely be snow as the region shivers in below normal temperatures.

    In Atlantic Canada, where temperatures are expected to be close to above normal, forecasters expect plenty of snow and ice but periods of milder weather and rain will keep snowbanks from getting too high.

    Scott says storms with lots of snow are forecast for December in the eastern half of Canada, while in the western half of the county, the winter conditions are expected to start in January.

    La Nina winters often mean changeable weather, and Scott says that while Canadians can expect to be pounded by numerous snowstorms, there will also be sustained periods of milder weather.

    "You might get two out of three months where you think, 'wow, that was a wild winter,' and then one month where the winter goes away," he explains. "But this will be a winter that's more on than off."

    Scott says Southern Ontario and Quebec might see mild conditions during all of January.  

    The weather pattern also calls for a winter that lingers, meaning the country could experience snowstorms as late as March.

    Scott notes that in the prairies a strong snow pack could benefit soil conditions and help produce a bountiful spring harvest.

    Ski resorts are also anticipating a banner season, especially in western Canada, where the coastal mountains are already getting snow.

    The only region of Canada not following the nation-wide trend is Nunavut, which has seen warming temperatures in recent years due to global warming. Scott says Nunavut can expect warmer than usual temperatures again this winter, along with average levels of snow.

    Salmaan Farooqui, The Canadian Press

© Smart About Salt Council.  Smart About Salt is a trademark and the Smart About Salt logo is a registered trademark of the Smart About Salt Council.

 Terms of Use  Refund Policy  Privacy Statement

Powered by Wild Apricot Membership Software